From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the end of the Un Climate Change Conference (UN), one of the largest and most ambitious global meetings ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding and universal agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2oC above the lower temperature levels set before the start of the industrial revolution. The 32-part document sets out a framework for global action on climate change, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, support for developing countries and transparency of reporting, and strengthening climate change goals. Here`s what he intends to do: on August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official message to the United Nations that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it was legally entitled to it.  The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect.  After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation.   All remaining parties to the agreement must present their new 2030 targets before the next major UN climate meeting, to be held in Glasgow, UK, in November 2021 (this year`s climate summit has been postponed due to the pandemic). To date, only 14 revised objectives have been proposed or presented. But without the United States, the balance between the parties that signed the Paris agreement shifts in China`s favor on key issues that have not yet been resolved.
According to Michael Oppenheimer, a climatologist at Princeton University in New Jersey, China could resist demands for follow-up and detailed reports on how countries implement their policies and achieve their goals. “It doesn`t bode well for the effectiveness of the Paris agreement,” he says. While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.  The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  Countries are also working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Prime Minister Mark Rutte has reached a coalition agreement to get out of coal and is calling on the EU to increase its ambitions. The level of the NDC set by each country will determine the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards.
 In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will be only one “Name and Shame” system or as “I`m Our Pesztor,” the United States.